Substantial nexus is established through the Commerce Clause requiring sufficient presence in a state prior to requiring collection of sales and use taxes. Substantial nexus was determined by physical presence (including employees) in the jurisdiction to require registration and collection of sales and use taxes. Many court cases have refined the definition of substantial nexus, the most notable case being Quill ruling. After time and significant technological advances in how business is transacted, substantial nexus and the Quill rulings have been under scrutiny and additional confusion.
Affiliate nexus is an evolution of the business world and the increase of online retailing. A business with an affiliate in a state, in which the business does not have any brick and mortar presence, becomes subject to sales and use tax registration and collection. Affiliation with Company A (in State C) to sell services or products with Affiliate B (in State D) who has a website in which they sell Company A products for a commission creates affiliate nexus for Company A and they are subject to sales and use tax registration and collection.
Acting as a representative for Company A creates affiliate nexus for Affiliate B in many states. The most notable case for affiliate nexus is the Borders Online v. State Bd. Of Equalization, (Cal. App. 1st Dist. 2005) which determined the acceptance of returns of purchases on-line in the brick and mortar stores created representation and therefore affiliation.
Click-through nexus is an extension of affiliate nexus for the growth of Internet marketing. Technology and Internet retailers are continuously improving and growing methods to increase their customer bases. Many states have implemented or are looking to implement Click-Though Nexus to keep up with the new technology. These laws presume an out-of-state retailer to have nexus in their states when a person in their state is referred to an out-of-state vendor’s website. If the referral results in a sale, nexus is created and the in-state retailer is required to collect sales & report use tax. These referrals are inclusive of the advertisement links one sees on Facebook pages. Click on one, purchase something, and a click-though nexus is created for the in-state retailer.
Economic nexus is the newest fight for states to impose sales and use tax on retailers not falling under other nexus definitions. Many on-line retailers (Amazon) have terminated affiliate agreements to not create affiliate nexus and subject to sales and use tax regulations. Enter economic nexus.
Economic nexus creates economic thresholds to create nexus and subject to sales and use tax regulations for nonresident retailers with no physical presence. States adopting economic nexus are creating various formulas to get a bright-line test for revenues received from the state during the tax year. Considerations for bright-line tests include analysis of the frequency, quantity, and the systematic nature of economic contacts with the state.
Notice and Reporting Requirements
A different approach to states collecting online retail use tax from in-state customers is Colorado’s Notice and Reporting Requirements. The law requires out-of-state retailers, not collecting sales tax from Colorado sales, to report transactions to state tax authorities and notify customers of the self-reporting and payment of the use tax obligation. Since there is no collection or remittance of sales or use tax required, the U.S. District Court of Appeals has held there is no violation to the Commerce Clause or the Quill ruling.